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Forest biomass

Biomass includes firewood, branches and wood waste from forestry, sawdust, bark and timber waste from wood-processing industry, as well as straw, corn stalks, sunflower stalks, remains of the pruning of vines and olives,  cherry pits and apple peel from agriculture, livestock waste, as well as municipal and industrial waste. 

In comparison with the fossil fuels, the biomass has lower emission of greenhouse gases and waste water. It is estimated that by using a biomass fuel, the burdening of the atmosphere with CO2 is negligible, as the quantity of the CO2 emitted during combustion is equal to the quantity of CO2 absorbed during plant growth. Additional advantages are the disposal and utilization of waste and residues from agriculture, forestry and wood processing, as well as reduction of imports of energy, and the investments into agriculture and developipng areas. 

By combustion of biomass, one gains the thermal energy for houshold and industrial heating, and the gaining of electric energy is possible, as well. Such systems of co-production of thermal and electric energy, provided that the thermal energy gets utilized, have a very high energy efficiency.  

Currently in Croatia there are two plants working on forest biomass, in Ogulin (1995) and Gospić (2002). Over the past few years, with support from the Fund for the Environment Protection and Energy Efficiency in Wood Industry, one began to replace the fossil fuel boilers with the biomass boilers. A more serious start of biomass exploitation in Croatia is connected with the wood-processing industry, which is logical when one thinks that by doing that, they use their own secundary product and achieve profitability.